PO ROMÊ TOWER, PANDURANGA (Ninh Thuan Province)

Author: Dave Paulson

Constructed during the 17th century, Po Romê is the last major tower built during the #Champa civilization, which spread throughout central Vietnam from the 2nd to 19th centuries. Archeologists and contemporary architects are still confounded by the indigenous #engineering of these structures (cf. Hardy et al. 2009). The main entrance faces east, a sacred direction for the Cham, and is adorned with the statue of #Shiva. This particular tower was built for worshipping King Po Romê (1627—1651), who is accredited by some for introducing the notions of Aheir and Awal into Cham cultural #philosophy (Yasuko 2010). Built in sun-dried red-brick clay, these famous towers endure into the present and function as holy sites for contemporary religious practice. Continue reading

Dai Viet Diplomatic Relations with Neighbouring Countries under Ly Dynasty

Nguyen Thanh Binh
University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Vietnam National University, Hanoi.
Email: nguyenthanhbinhtriet@gmail.comReceived: 8 March, 2017. Accepted: 30 March, 2017.

Source: Vietnam Social Sciences, No.3 (179) – 2017 
Abstract: Vietnam, or Dai Viet (Great Viet) as named under Ly dynasty, had diplomatic relations with its neighbours, including China, Champa and Chenla. It pursued a peace-loving foreign
policy, while resolutely resisting foreign aggression. The foreign policy was aimed at building and upholding friendship among neighbouring countries for the purpose of creating and maintaining a peaceful environment for national construction and defence.
Keywords: Diplomatic relations, Ly dynasty, Song dynasty, Champa, Chenla, Laos. Continue reading

The Vietnam Central Coastline and the Emergent Nguyễn State, c. 1500-1700: Port, Coastline, Hinterland Interrelations

This study, building upon earlier works published from 2011 to the present, focuses on sixteenth through eighteenth century Cochinchina’s upstream-downstream networked relations and how they contributed to the re-development of the region’s economy and consequently its political and social development, with particular emphasis on its coastal ports and related trade under the Nguyễn. These relations revolve around tightly connected interactions among diverse groups including long-term resident diasporic Fujian merchant communities, newly introduced Chan Buddhist monks, maritime-based Chinese pro-Ming piratical syndicates, local Cham raiding cohorts, and the alien Nguyễn clan who in 1600 claimed political authority over the Vietnamese littoral’s central coastal region (Trung Bộ) and extended central lands (Miền Trung). The partnerships the Nguyễn established with each of these groups (merchants, monks, pirates, upstream and downstream multiethnic communities) enabled the major ports of Đà Năng, and particularly, of Hội An, to thrive and produce the income needed to support both the Nguyễn bureaucracy and its military conquest of the southern third of the littoral. Over the course of the seventeenth and into the eighteenth centuries, the Nguyễn co-opted the cultural, spiritual, and maritime-based power and influence exercised by each of each these groups in an initial effort to fulfill its dynastic ambitions that remained unfulfilled until 1802. This work moves beyond other regional studies by using the approach proposed in Michael Pearson’s writings regarding the Indian Ocean ports-of-trade littoral and extending them eastward, to the further edges of the Indian Ocean borderless world, and applying them to the complex interactions of the Vietnamese littoral populations-coastal urban and hinterland – as they contributed to the development of the central Vietnamese littoral’s ports-of-trade and of Nguyễn authority and power in this era. Continue reading

[Trao đổi] Phản biện sách “Văn hóa Sa Huỳnh với Đông Nam Á

Quảng Đại Tuyên (Isvan) – Nghiên cứu sinh, Trường Đại học Queenland, Australia.

 Đổng Thành Danh – Trung tâm Nghiên cứu Văn hóa Chăm tỉnh Ninh Thuận.

Kiều Văn Vủ – Nghiên cứu tự do

[Bài đăng trên tạp chí Nghiên cứu và phát triển: Số 6 – 2016]

Tóm tắt

Sa Huỳnh và Champa là những mảng nghiên cứu thực sự thu hút nhiều sự quan tâm của chuyên gia trong và ngoài nước. Hàng năm, những công trình nghiên cứu về Sa Huỳnh và Champa luôn được công bố để chia sẻ và thông báo những kết quả nghiên cứu đến với giới học thuật và đọc giả. Những trao đổi về các công trình nghiên cứu được công bố cũng thực sự rất sôi động. Trong bài viết này, chúng tôi muốn trao đổi và phản biện về Sách Văn hóa Sa Huỳnh với Đông Nam Á của nhóm tác giả Nguyễn Văn Chừng, Dương Minh Chính, Lê Văn Công, Lê Sơn , Nguyễn Văn Thanh, Lê Quốc Ân, Nguyễn Quốc Chiến được ấn hành bởi nhà xuất bản Hồng Đức (Hà Nội) vào năm 2015. Nhóm chúng tôi đã chỉ ra ba nhận thức sai lầm từ công bố của nhóm tác giả này: [1] về khoa học: đầy sai lầm; [2] về quan hệ dân tộc: dễ gây ngộ nhận, mất đoàn kết; từ đó [3] độc giả phổ thông tiếp nhận tri thức sai lạc và nguy hiểm. Continue reading

Heritage and cultural tourism: the role of the aesthetic when visiting Mỹ Sơn and Cham Museum, Vietnam

 

Image result for Bao tang ChamThu Thi Trinha and Chris Ryanb*

Danang College of Econ

omics and Planning, Da Nang City, Vietnam;

University of Waikato Management School, Hamilton, New Zealand

(Received 22 October 2014; accepted 19 May 2015)

[Current Issues in Tourism]

Research on motivations and perceptions of tourists at a cultural heritage site is not rare but the personal and aesthetic context of visitors’ experiences have been neglected in much of the literature on cultural tourist attraction management. Using qualitative methods, this study explores the nature of demand for heritage tourism with particular attention to the appreciation gained by visitors of indigenous Cham culture, its arts of exotic sculptures, and its monuments and architecture. These dimensions describe an evolutionary experience of place that moves some tourists from a position of relatively shallow interest to an almost spiritual position due in some part to the role of the aesthetic that rises from landscape and dance. Continue reading

Phật giáo Champa: Từ tư liệu đến nhận thức

Thạc sĩ Quảng Văn Sơn

[Bài đăng trên tạp chí nghiên cứu Tôn giáo]

Tôn giáo là một vấn đề không thể không có trong một quốc gia. Phật giáo Đại thừa từng chiếm một vị trí rất quan trọng trong đời sống văn hóa xã hội vương quốc Champa. Bằng nhiều nguồn tư liệu khác nhau, bài viết làm rõ thêm về Phật giáo Champa từ thế kỷ III đến thế kỷ X. Thông qua sử liệu, bia ký, di tích, di vật mang dấu ấn Phật giáo Champa, bài viết phân tích nguyên nhân Phật giáo Champa không còn tồn tại trong đời sống văn hóa xã hội của vương quốc này. Continue reading

The Cham of Vietnam: History, Society and Art

The-Cham-of-Vietnam

Edited by Bruce Lockhart and Tran Ky Phuong

The Cham people once inhabited and ruled over a large stretch of what is now the central Vietnamese coast. The Indianized civilization of this Austronesian-speaking group flourished between roughly the third and fifteenth centuries, and they competed with the Vietnamese and Khmers for influence in mainland Southeast Asia, but the Cham territories eventually became part of modern Vietnam. Written by specialists in history, archaeology, anthropology, art history, and linguistics, the essays in The Cham of Vietnam contribute to a revisionist overview of Cham history by re-assessing the ways the Cham have been studied by different generations of scholars of what “Champa” has represented over the centuries of its history. Several chapters focus on archaeological work in central Vietnam and position recent discoveries within the broader framework of Cham history, but there are also discussions of Cham economy, society and culture. Continue reading

The Origin and Spread of Early-Ripening Champa Rice: It’s Impact on Song Dynasty China

Abstract

Often overlooked is the importance of early maturing rice varieties with their ability to escape droughts, avoid floods, and in some localities, open up the opportunity for double cropping. Most varieties grown in the tropics until the last half century matured in 150 to 180 days or longer and were photoperiod sensitive. However, non-photoperiod sensitive one-hundred-day varieties were grown in the Champa Kingdom in what is now Central Vietnam centuries ago. How these varieties moved into Song Dynasty China and the impact of the early ripening rice on population growth in South China is well documented. However, the origin of the Champa varieties is less clear. According to a recent DNA test (see below), the Champa varieties belong to the aus sub-population. The aus have the characteristics of both indica and japonica and originated in the hill areas of what are now Eastern India, Bangladesh, and Myanmar. Because the Champa Kingdom adopted the Indian language and religion, at least in the higher courts, it seems logical that the Champa rice must have been disseminated from the hilly areas in the Indian sub-continent to Central Vietnam and eventually to China—first Fujian and later to the Yangtze region during the Song Dynasty in the eleventh century.  Continue reading

Dr. Bradley Murg

Dr. Bradley Murg is an assistant professor of political science and director of global development studies at Seattle Pacific University and affiliate professor at the Henry M. Jackson School of International Studies at the University of Washington. Dr. Murg’s research, supported by grants from the Social Science Research Council and the International Research and Exchanges Board, focuses on legal reform, regional inequality, the political economy of foreign aid, and economic development in the Mekong region, China (particularly Xinjiang, Qinghai and Ningxia), and the former Soviet Union. His current work explores the history of foreign aid in Cambodia, paying particular attention to the development of the Cham community as well as Chinese aid and investment today. Dr. Murg graduated Phi Beta Kappa from Emory University with a BA/MA in philosophy, received his MSc. in economic history from the London School of Economics, and his M.A. and PhD in political science from the University of Washington. Dr. Murg has worked in Asia for nearly 20 years, initially having moved to the region as a Henry Luce Scholar at the Asian Development Bank in 2000. He speaks English, French, German, Russian, Mandarin Chinese, Tagalog, and is currently struggling with Khmer.

Continue reading