Professor Jorge López Cortina, Department of Languages, Literatures, and Cultures, will discuss the Cham Heritage Extension Program, a literacy project that ran between 2011 and 2017 and saw the first formal attempts to produce literacy materials for the Western Cham language and train instructors as advocates of Cham literacy to the wider community. The event will take place on Monday, March 19, at 6 p.m. in the University Libraries Common Area, second floor.
Initially envisioned as a small literacy project for a few villages, the Cham Heritage Extension Program produced six textbooks and language guides, trained more than 30 Cham teachers, and served over 2,400 students. Most importantly, the program has expanded the scope of use of the written Cham language, producing not only textbooks, but children’s books, books of poetry, and a monthly general interest publication, Mukva, the first ever Cham language periodical. The program also established the Cham Language Advisory Committee, a body that watches over all these initiatives in order to ensure that the process of normalization of the Cham language is steered by the Cham community.
In 1822 John Crawfurd, a medical doctor and British civil servant, published as a column in the appendix of a book an 81-item wordlist with the heading Malay of Champa , a designation that is essentially geographical. The existence of the list immediately brings up several basic questions: What language is it? That is, if it is Chamic, precisely which Chamic language is it? Once the language is identified, what can we learn from examining the wordlist? That is, what reliable information does it give us about that language in 1822? In addition, there are a number of minor queries about how to interpret Crawfurd s transcription. Crawfurd s background . Crawfurd himself was born on the island of Islay west of Scotland in 1783. He trained as a medical doctor at Edinburgh and at twenty he was given an appointment as a medical officer in India s North-West provinces. Crawfurd acquired Malay between 1808 to 1811 in Penang, learning not just the language but the culture. Between 1808 and 1816 he was part of the British presence in Java, including serving as the British Resident at the Court of the Sultan of Jogjakarta. He later served as Resident in Singapore between 1823 and 1826. Continue reading →
Le cham est une langue austronésienne parlée par les Chams, héritiers d’un royaume indianisé d’Asie du Sud-Est, le Champa, qui occupait la moitié sud du Vietnam actuel. Les Chams n’ont pas, contrairement aux Khmers, conservé leur État. Vaincu au fil des siècles par le royaume des Viêts, le Champa a disparu comme une peau de chagrin, laissant des vestiges architecturaux et artistiques inestimables.
Les Chams d’aujourd’hui représentent un demi-million de locuteurs. Ils peuplent toujours le territoire de leur ancien royaume au sud du Vietnam, mais vivent majoritairement en diaspora, notamment au Cambodge.
Parlons cham propose une initiation à la langue de ce peuple matrilinéaire pratiquant des formes originales de brahmanisme et d’islam. Un peuple minoritaire, certes, mais confronté aux grands enjeux de la modernité en conservant sa langue et son écriture par un attachement indéfectible au Champa, puissant fédérateur d’imaginaire.
Eastern Cham is an Austronesian language spoken in south-central Vietnam by about 100,000 people. It is considered endangered due to a lack of intergenerational transmission, high levels of bilingualism with Vietnamese, and limited language education (cf. Brunelle 2008; Moseley 2010). Following the period from the 1650’s to the 1800’s, Eastern Cham has been in a unidirectional language contact situation with Vietnamese, the dominant socioeconomic language of the area (cf. Po 1991). The prevalence of language contact has led to numerous proposed contact effects from Vietnamese (cf. Thurgood 1999; Brunelle & Phú, forthcoming). Data for this paper come from the author’s field elicitation with 15 native speakers of university age from the Cham villages of Ninh Thuận province, Vietnam. These speakers exhibit numerous such contact effects, and there is inter- and intra-speaker variation present in numerous lexical items (cf. Baclawski Jr., forthcoming).
In the following sections, the form hu is analyzed as a contrastive topic marker. In previous literature, hu is noted to be polyfunctional. Thurgood & Li (2003) and Brunelle & Phú (forthcoming) explore its grammaticalization paths. In contemporary Eastern Cham, hu is a verb meaning ‘have’, a clause-final root modal, and an existential copula (3a). In addition to these uses, hu often accompanies negation in a variety of positions, such as 2 predicate-initial (3b), and it can also mark contrastive topic in these same positions (3c).2 The forms of hu in (3a–c) are different from the ‘have’ and modal uses, as they are not in verbal or clause-final positions, and the relevant meanings are absent. In Section 3, existential clefts, negation, and contrastive topic are explored further.
CDICT is an online dictionary for the Cham language. CDICT is searchable by, and contains entries in, Cham, English, French and Vietnamese languages. This resource compiles dictionaries written by Gérard Moussay, Bùi Khánh Thế, and Etienne Aymonier, among others.
This is a revised edition of the 2009 The Austronesian languages, which was published as a paperback in the then Pacific Linguistics series (ISBN 9780858836020). This revision includes typographical corrections, an improved index, and various minor content changes. The release of the open access edition serves to meet the strong ongoing demand for this important handbook, of which only 200 copies of the first edition were printed.
This is the first single-authored book that attempts to describe the Austronesian language family in its entirety. Topics covered include: the physical and cultural background, official and national languages, largest and smallest languages in all major geographical regions, language contact, sound systems, linguistic palaeontology, morphology, syntax, the history of scholarship on Austronesian languages, and a critical assessment of the reconstruction of Proto Austronesian phonology.
Full name: Phú Trạm, pen name: Inrasara [Inra: Cham transliteration of Sanskrit Indra, the god of Thunder; Sara: salt]
Inrasara was born on August 20th 1957, in the Cham town of Caklaing. His hometown is known as “Mỹ Nghiệp, Phước Dân” in Vietnamese, and is located in Ninh Phước District, to the south of Phan Rang, in Ninh Thuận Province, along the south-central Vietnamese coastline. In the late 1960s, he was a student at Po Klong High School in Ninh Thuận province, where he graduated from High School in 1969. He then went on to study at the University of Pedagogy in Ho Chi Minh City in 1977, although he left university a year later to wander in Cham villages. He began collecting Cham poems and folk tales. He read philosophy and composed poems in both Vietnamese and Cham language. After five years of independent work, he became employed as a Research for the Editorial Committee of Cham Textbooks-Ninh Thuận Province in 1982. After decades of work, his research skills became widely recognized. In 1992, Inrasara moved to the University of Social Sciences & Humanities in Ho Chi Minh City, where he was employed as a Researcher at the Center for Vietnamese & Southeast Asian Studies. After six years at the university, however, he found that he was best left to his own devices as an independent scholar. Since 1998, he has thrived as a free writer and free thinker. He has published extensive poems in Vietnamese and Cham, along with numerous translations of Cham poetry into Vietnamese. He is renowned for his literary criticism, along with his research on Cham language and culture. Continue reading →