“Parlons cham du Vietnam”
Agnès De Féo
Le cham est une langue austronésienne parlée par les Chams, héritiers d’un royaume indianisé d’Asie du Sud-Est, le Champa, qui occupait la moitié sud du Vietnam actuel. Les Chams n’ont pas, contrairement aux Khmers, conservé leur État. Vaincu au fil des siècles par le royaume des Viêts, le Champa a disparu comme une peau de chagrin, laissant des vestiges architecturaux et artistiques inestimables.
Les Chams d’aujourd’hui représentent un demi-million de locuteurs. Ils peuplent toujours le territoire de leur ancien royaume au sud du Vietnam, mais vivent majoritairement en diaspora, notamment au Cambodge.
Parlons cham propose une initiation à la langue de ce peuple matrilinéaire pratiquant des formes originales de brahmanisme et d’islam. Un peuple minoritaire, certes, mais confronté aux grands enjeux de la modernité en conservant sa langue et son écriture par un attachement indéfectible au Champa, puissant fédérateur d’imaginaire.
“Contrastive topic in Eastern Cham”
Kenneth Baclawski Jr.
Eastern Cham is an Austronesian language spoken in south-central Vietnam by about 100,000 people. It is considered endangered due to a lack of intergenerational transmission, high levels of bilingualism with Vietnamese, and limited language education (cf. Brunelle 2008; Moseley 2010). Following the period from the 1650’s to the 1800’s, Eastern Cham has been in a unidirectional language contact situation with Vietnamese, the dominant socioeconomic language of the area (cf. Po 1991). The prevalence of language contact has led to numerous proposed contact effects from Vietnamese (cf. Thurgood 1999; Brunelle & Phú, forthcoming). Data for this paper come from the author’s field elicitation with 15 native speakers of university age from the Cham villages of Ninh Thuận province, Vietnam. These speakers exhibit numerous such contact effects, and there is inter- and intra-speaker variation present in numerous lexical items (cf. Baclawski Jr., forthcoming).
In the following sections, the form hu is analyzed as a contrastive topic marker. In previous literature, hu is noted to be polyfunctional. Thurgood & Li (2003) and Brunelle & Phú (forthcoming) explore its grammaticalization paths. In contemporary Eastern Cham, hu is a verb meaning ‘have’, a clause-final root modal, and an existential copula (3a). In addition to these uses, hu often accompanies negation in a variety of positions, such as 2 predicate-initial (3b), and it can also mark contrastive topic in these same positions (3c).2 The forms of hu in (3a–c) are different from the ‘have’ and modal uses, as they are not in verbal or clause-final positions, and the relevant meanings are absent. In Section 3, existential clefts, negation, and contrastive topic are explored further.
Online Cham Dictionary (Từ điển Chăm Online)
CDICT is an online dictionary for the Cham language. CDICT is searchable by, and contains entries in, Cham, English, French and Vietnamese languages. This resource compiles dictionaries written by Gérard Moussay, Bùi Khánh Thế, and Etienne Aymonier, among others.
Cham Dictionary App:
1. iOS – https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/cham-dictionary/id1359631955?mt=8
2. Android – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=appnguoichamcomcdict.wpapp&hl
“THE AUSTRONESIAN LANGUAGES (Revised Edition)”
by Robert Blust
This is a revised edition of the 2009 The Austronesian languages, which was published as a paperback in the then Pacific Linguistics series (ISBN 9780858836020). This revision includes typographical corrections, an improved index, and various minor content changes. The release of the open access edition serves to meet the strong ongoing demand for this important handbook, of which only 200 copies of the first edition were printed.
This is the first single-authored book that attempts to describe the Austronesian language family in its entirety. Topics covered include: the physical and cultural background, official and national languages, largest and smallest languages in all major geographical regions, language contact, sound systems, linguistic palaeontology, morphology, syntax, the history of scholarship on Austronesian languages, and a critical assessment of the reconstruction of Proto Austronesian phonology.
Full name: Phú Trạm, pen name: Inrasara
[Inra: Cham transliteration of Sanskrit Indra, the god of Thunder; Sara: salt]
Inrasara was born on August 20th 1957, in the Cham town of Caklaing. His hometown is known as “Mỹ Nghiệp, Phước Dân” in Vietnamese, and is located in Ninh Phước District, to the south of Phan Rang, in Ninh Thuận Province, along the south-central Vietnamese coastline. In the late 1960s, he was a student at Po Klong High School in Ninh Thuận province, where he graduated from High School in 1969. He then went on to study at the University of Pedagogy in Ho Chi Minh City in 1977, although he left university a year later to wander in Cham villages. He began collecting Cham poems and folk tales. He read philosophy and composed poems in both Vietnamese and Cham language. After five years of independent work, he became employed as a Research for the Editorial Committee of Cham Textbooks-Ninh Thuận Province in 1982. After decades of work, his research skills became widely recognized. In 1992, Inrasara moved to the University of Social Sciences & Humanities in Ho Chi Minh City, where he was employed as a Researcher at the Center for Vietnamese & Southeast Asian Studies. After six years at the university, however, he found that he was best left to his own devices as an independent scholar. Since 1998, he has thrived as a free writer and free thinker. He has published extensive poems in Vietnamese and Cham, along with numerous translations of Cham poetry into Vietnamese. He is renowned for his literary criticism, along with his research on Cham language and culture.
Quatre Lexiques Malais-Cam anciens rédigés au Campa (Bốn tự điển cổ Mã Lai-Chăm sáng tác ở Champa) là tác phẩm viết bằng tiếng Pháp do Viện Viễn Đông Pháp (EFEO) ấn hành ở Paris vào năm 1999, dày 397 trang. Tác phẩm này dịch sang tiếng Mã Lai mang tựa đề “Empat lexkison bahasa Melayu-bahasa Cam yang di sunsun di Campa pada abad ke -17 » xuất bản tại Kuala Lumpur bởi Bộ Văn Hoá Mã Lai và Viện Viễn Đông Pháp (EFEO), vào năm 2000 gồm 403 trang.
Tự điển cổ Mã Lai-Chăm là công trình nghiên cứu dựa vào 7 tác phẩm viết bằng Akhar Thrah Chăm mang nhiều tựa đề khác nhau: Ni papnuec puec Jawa, Ni Jawa lang, Ni panuec maduen puec Jawa atulang, Ni panuec puec Jawa talang, Ni Jawa Ahaok, Ni penuec Jawa lang ngap gruk yau ni. Để đơn giản hoá cách trình bày, Ts. Po Dharma đặt cho 7 tác phẩm này một tên gọi chung là Atulang Jawa Ahaok (từ điển ngôn ngữ của người thuỷ thủ Mã Lai)
Nội san Roh Twah là nội sang nghiên cứu của người Chăm trước năm 1975. Với mong muốn cung cấp cho quý đồng nghiệp nghiên cứu có cơ hội tiếp cận với những bài viết của các bậc tiền bối, Chamstudies xin chia sẻ một chuyên san đặc biệt về ngôn ngữ Chăm. Một vấn đề đã và đang thu hút nhiều sự quan tâm của cộng đồng Chăm.
Van Mon, Truong. Studies on AsiaSeries V, 1.1 (Spring 2016): 122-137,156.
The records of the Champa civilization, which was located in central Vietnam, go as far back as the second century (192). The Cham were profoundly influenced by Indian civilization and Islam. Although Champa culture remained vibrant until around 1832, much was lost throughout periods of assimilation of ethnic minority communities into Vietnamese society. In particular, warfare with the Vietnamese and the Khmer from the tenth to the nineteenth century left Champa polities on the brink of collapse.1 Currently, there are only an estimated 161,700 Cham people remaining in various provinces and cities in Vietnam. The largest population centers are concentrated in Ninh Thuan, Binh Thuan, An Giang, and Tay Ninh provinces, as well as Ho Chi Minh City.2 The contemporary Cham retain some aspects of Champa culture. They still venerate Champa temples, create Champa styled statues, and study Champa inscriptions. In particular they still value palm leaf manuscripts (agal bac) which are kept and used by Hindu influenced Cham priests (Ahiér) for their religious rituals. Continue reading