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This working paper on the Cham is the third of a pre-publication series on the groups being distributed on a limited basis. It is a descriptive report based on secondary sources dealing with the Vietnamese society. Field research was not undertaken, although the comments of consultants and personnel recently returned from Vietnam have been incorporated. The final report will contain line drawings and illustrations.
It must be recognized, then, that this paper on the Cham is not an exhaustive study. Further, the information contained herein may be dated even before it is published and may be subject to modification in the light of new developments and information. Although it contains the latest information available, the user is cautioned to consider this study as a point of departure to be checked against the current circumstances or conditions of the particular area in which he is working. Continue reading
A lively report published by Captain Henry Baudesson in 1932 upon returning from years of work in the interior of Vietnam on various French colonial public works. The author lived for years among the Moïs, which means “savages” in Vietnamese, and comprises several hill tribes. He also spent a considerable period of time with the Cham, the curious remnants of the great Mohammedan Champa state. The book is lavishly illustrated with period photographs of these hill people and their customs in which captain Baudesson took a special interest. Their social life and religious rites are placed in the wider context of studies of primitive peoples in other parts of the world. His descriptions of their art and culture are charac-terized by great respect for those who would soon suffer so much from the growing influence of colonial ventures brought by way of the railway line on which he was himself working. Continue reading
Tiếp cận một số vấn đề văn hóa Champa
The book not only shows us the colorful pottery shards, eroded sacred statues, ruined temples, chipped inscriptions, weathered pages, and colored patterns on traditional dress but also the marriage and legal customs, rituals, festivals, and traditional performing arts. These tropes are not only present in a number of regions in Viet Nam such as the Central Highlands, Ninh Thuan, and Binh Thuan provinces, but also have appeared in a number of other countries in Asia such as China, India, Japan, Malaysia, and Cambodia. The Cham civilization that used to flourish was broken as its stars blinked out and were covered with fabric. Today Cham culture is being revived. The shards of the Cham civilization are being assembled as a glittering mosaic that contributes to the enrichment of the cultural gardens of the great family of Vietnam’s ethnic peoples. Continue reading
This dissertation investigates the prosodic and intonational characteristics of Western Cham (three letter code for International Organization for Standardization’s ISO 639-3 code: [iso=cja]), an Austronesian language in the Chamic sub-group. I examine acoustic variables of prominence at word and postlexical levels: syllable duration, pitch excursion, and mean intensity. WC syllable duration is highly correlated with word level prominence. Western Cham disyllabic words display a strong iambicity, with final syllables having twice the duration of initial syllables. This iambicity is also present in phrases comprised of two monosyllabic words. Phrase position has an effect on syllable duration and pitch excursion. Syllables in phrase-final position showed a lengthening effect and display greater pitch movement in phrase-final position. I also present a tonal grammar of Western Cham using the Autosegmental-Metrical framework and the Tones and Break Indices (ToBI) labeling convention. Two prosodic units above the word level were defined: the Accentual Phrase (AP) and Intonational Phrase (IP). Three kinds of tones are defined: edge tones, phrase tone, and pitch accent. With this inventory of tones, a mapping of sentence types to tonal contours is presented.