Historical, Ethnographic, and Contemporary Political Analyses of the Muslims of Kampuchea and Vietnam

Historical, Ethnographic, and Contemporary Political Analyses of the Muslims of Kampuchea and Vietnam

Raymond Scupin


This paper surveys the historical, early ethnographic, and contemporary political analyses of the Cham Muslims of Kampuchea and Vietnam. The historical overview describes the Indic and Islamic influence on the traditional kingdom of Champa, the consequences of French colonialism, and the results of the Vietnam war. The ethnographic description of the Cham is based on early French scholarly depictions that were influenced by Orientalist modes of representation. The contemporary political analysis is derived from scholarly attempts at assessing the recent situation of Cham Muslims as they faced genocide in Cambodia and experienced ethnic repression in Vietnam.
Full Text on Academia.com: http://bit.ly/ScupinSOJOURN
Sojourn: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia
Vol. 10, No. 2 (October 1995), pp. 301-328

Minorities at Large: New Approaches to Minority Ethnicity in Vietnam

Minorities at Large: New Approaches to Minority Ethnicity in Vietnam

Philip Taylor, editor

This collection represents a new approach to minority ethnicity in Vietnam. Drawing on ethnographic and historical research in the highlands and lowlands, eight essays provide rich descriptions of a wide variety of ethnic minority experiences. They offer provocative analyses that challenge stereotypes about minority groups in scholarship and official development policy. While powerful forces such as warring armies, the socialist state, or the market economy often are said to have undermined the livelihoods and identities of once-autonomous peoples, these studies reveal how peoples at the periphery of the modern nation state nonetheless have been active in the transformation and redefinition of their worlds. The chapters situate contemporary minority transnational networks in the context of older translocal affiliations, identities, and livelihood strategies. In contrast with the attention devoted in previous studies to the state ethnic classification project, the studies shed light on popular identifications in circulation, and transition, among ethnic minorities themselves.


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Yếu tố bản địa, Bàlamôn giáo và Islam giáo trong tôn giáo của người Chăm Ahiér qua bộ kinh Lá buông (Agal Bac) mới phát hiện



Tóm tắt: Bài viết này, tác giả giới thiệu tổng quan về chủ đề, nội dung của bộ kinh – văn bản lá buông (agal bac) mà tu sĩ Basaih, Po Adhia người Chăm Ahiér đang lưu giữ và dùng để hành lễ hiện nay. Thông qua bộ kinh và việc thực hành nghi lễ của các tu sĩ, tác giả bóc tách nhiều lớp văn hóa, tôn giáo khác nhau trong cộng đồng Chăm. Kết quả nghiên cứu này chỉ ra rằng: tôn giáo Bàlamôn ở người Chăm Ahiér không hoàn toàn chính thống mà là sự dung hòa các yếu tố bản địa, Bàlamôn giáo và Islam giáo.

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Contrastive topic in Eastern Cham

“Contrastive topic in Eastern Cham”

Kenneth Baclawski Jr.

Eastern Cham is an Austronesian language spoken in south-central Vietnam by about 100,000 people. It is considered endangered due to a lack of intergenerational transmission, high levels of bilingualism with Vietnamese, and limited language education (cf. Brunelle 2008; Moseley 2010). Following the period from the 1650’s to the 1800’s, Eastern Cham has been in a unidirectional language contact situation with Vietnamese, the dominant socioeconomic language of the area (cf. Po 1991). The prevalence of language contact has led to numerous proposed contact effects from Vietnamese (cf. Thurgood 1999; Brunelle & Phú, forthcoming). Data for this paper come from the author’s field elicitation with 15 native speakers of university age from the Cham villages of Ninh Thuận province, Vietnam. These speakers exhibit numerous such contact effects, and there is inter- and intra-speaker variation present in numerous lexical items (cf. Baclawski Jr., forthcoming).
In the following sections, the form hu is analyzed as a contrastive topic marker. In previous literature, hu is noted to be polyfunctional. Thurgood & Li (2003) and Brunelle & Phú (forthcoming) explore its grammaticalization paths. In contemporary Eastern Cham, hu is a verb meaning ‘have’, a clause-final root modal, and an existential copula (3a). In addition to these uses, hu often accompanies negation in a variety of positions, such as 2 predicate-initial (3b), and it can also mark contrastive topic in these same positions (3c).2 The forms of hu in (3a–c) are different from the ‘have’ and modal uses, as they are not in verbal or clause-final positions, and the relevant meanings are absent. In Section 3, existential clefts, negation, and contrastive topic are explored further.

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The Barefoot Anthropologist: The Highlands of Champa and Vietnam in the Words of Jacques Dournes

The Barefoot Anthropologist: The Highlands of Champa and Vietnam in the Words of Jacques Dournes

Andrew Hardy

French anthropologist Jacques Dournes lived in Vietnam for 25 years, from 1946 to 1970, studying the culture of the Jarai and other highland ethnic groups. He became a renowned ethnographer and the Jarai people became his lifelong passion.

In part 1 of this study, Andrew Hardy explores Dournes’s challenging monograph Potao, une théorie de pouvoir chez les Indochinois jorai and his views on the role of the highlanders in ancient Champa. In part 2, Dournes speaks animatedly with the author about the Jarai, his feelings about culture and economics, his understanding of Vietnam’s history, and his personal experience of living in the Central Highlands. The French transcript of the interview is presented in the appendix.

ANDREW HARDY works at the Ecole Francaise d’Extreme-Orient (EFEO), specializing in the history of Vietnam. He is the author of Red Hills: Migrants and the State in the Highlands of Vietnam.

Dr. Bradley Murg

Dr. Bradley Murg is an assistant professor of political science and director of global development studies at Seattle Pacific University and affiliate professor at the Henry M. Jackson School of International Studies at the University of Washington. Dr. Murg’s research, supported by grants from the Social Science Research Council and the International Research and Exchanges Board, focuses on legal reform, regional inequality, the political economy of foreign aid, and economic development in the Mekong region, China (particularly Xinjiang, Qinghai and Ningxia), and the former Soviet Union. His current work explores the history of foreign aid in Cambodia, paying particular attention to the development of the Cham community as well as Chinese aid and investment today. Dr. Murg graduated Phi Beta Kappa from Emory University with a BA/MA in philosophy, received his MSc. in economic history from the London School of Economics, and his M.A. and PhD in political science from the University of Washington. Dr. Murg has worked in Asia for nearly 20 years, initially having moved to the region as a Henry Luce Scholar at the Asian Development Bank in 2000. He speaks English, French, German, Russian, Mandarin Chinese, Tagalog, and is currently struggling with Khmer.

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Inrasara – Phu Tram

2Full name: Phú Trạm, pen name: Inrasara
[Inra: Cham transliteration of Sanskrit Indra, the god of Thunder; Sara: salt]

Inrasara was born on August 20th 1957, in the Cham town of Caklaing. His hometown is known as “Mỹ Nghiệp, Phước Dân” in Vietnamese, and is located in Ninh Phước District, to the south of Phan Rang, in Ninh Thuận Province, along the south-central Vietnamese coastline. In the late 1960s, he was a student at Po Klong High School in Ninh Thuận province, where he graduated from High School in 1969. He then went on to study at the University of Pedagogy in Ho Chi Minh City in 1977, although he left university a year later to wander in Cham villages. He began collecting Cham poems and folk tales. He read philosophy and composed poems in both Vietnamese and Cham language. After five years of independent work, he became employed as a Research for the Editorial Committee of Cham Textbooks-Ninh Thuận Province in 1982. After decades of work, his research skills became widely recognized. In 1992, Inrasara moved to the University of Social Sciences & Humanities in Ho Chi Minh City, where he was employed as a Researcher at the Center for Vietnamese & Southeast Asian Studies. After six years at the university, however, he found that he was best left to his own devices as an independent scholar. Since 1998, he has thrived as a free writer and free thinker. He has published extensive poems in Vietnamese and Cham, along with numerous translations of Cham poetry into Vietnamese. He is renowned for his literary criticism, along with his research on Cham language and culture.
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Dr. Amandine Lepoutre

Dr. Amandine Lepoutre was born on November 26th, 1979 and currently lives in Lille, France.


From 1998 to 2000 Dr. Lepoutre attended the University of Charles de Gaulle, Lille 3, Villeneuve d’Ascq, where she received a DEUG in History, with foci in law and economy. Then, in June 2001 she also received a license in History, with a focus in archaeology, before following this study up with an MA in Medieval History in June 2002, also from University of Charles de Gaulle, Lille 3, Villeneuve d’Ascq. In September 2003 she earned a DESS in Southeast Asian Studies with foci in cooperation, development, and management, also from University of Charles de Gaulle, Lille 3, Villeneuve d’Ascq. The following year she entered the doctoral program in History and Philology at EPHE, in Paris, where she made rapid progress, and managed to defend her dissertation as of March 2010. She is fluent in English, has a reading knowledge of Eastern Cham Akhar Thrah script, and has a working knowledge of Sanskrit as well as Vietnamese. She is co-author with three others on the most recent multi-lingual epigraphic study of Cham inscriptions from the Museum of Cham Culture at Da Nang.

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Dr. Siti Nor Awang

siti nor awangDr. Siti Nor Awang

School of Distance Education
Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

Academic Qualifications:

  • Ph.D. (Social Anthropology) 2010, University of Hull UK
  • Master of Art (Social Anthropology) 1996, University of Malaya
  • B.A. (Hons.) Anthropology & Sociology 1994, University of Malaya



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David Griffiths Sox



David Griffiths Sox earned a Master of Arts in geography at University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) in 1972, with a lengthy thesis titled “Resource Use System of Ancient Champa”.  The thesis reconstructed the economy of Champa, with chapters on prehistory and history, trade systems, agriculture and maritime technology, and hypothesized the central role of the temple in the Champa’s economy.  

He later collected a large amount of information from U.S. and French libraries about Cham culture and the cultural landscape of Champa for a geography Ph.D. dissertation that was never completed.  Since 1973, and especially after the advent of the internet, Sox has accumulted over 25 linear feet of Champa and related Vietnamese and Southeast Asian files.

Prior to graduate school, David took French as an undergraduate and intensive Vietnamese at the Army Language School in Monterey, after which he served in Vietnam for 30 months between 1965 and 1967.  At UHM, he also was exposed to one semester of intensive Mandarin Chinese. Unfortunately, he does not understand Cham. Continue reading