“Parlons cham du Vietnam”
Agnès De Féo
Le cham est une langue austronésienne parlée par les Chams, héritiers d’un royaume indianisé d’Asie du Sud-Est, le Champa, qui occupait la moitié sud du Vietnam actuel. Les Chams n’ont pas, contrairement aux Khmers, conservé leur État. Vaincu au fil des siècles par le royaume des Viêts, le Champa a disparu comme une peau de chagrin, laissant des vestiges architecturaux et artistiques inestimables.
Les Chams d’aujourd’hui représentent un demi-million de locuteurs. Ils peuplent toujours le territoire de leur ancien royaume au sud du Vietnam, mais vivent majoritairement en diaspora, notamment au Cambodge.
Parlons cham propose une initiation à la langue de ce peuple matrilinéaire pratiquant des formes originales de brahmanisme et d’islam. Un peuple minoritaire, certes, mais confronté aux grands enjeux de la modernité en conservant sa langue et son écriture par un attachement indéfectible au Champa, puissant fédérateur d’imaginaire.
Minorities at Large: New Approaches to Minority Ethnicity in Vietnam
Philip Taylor, editor
This collection represents a new approach to minority ethnicity in Vietnam. Drawing on ethnographic and historical research in the highlands and lowlands, eight essays provide rich descriptions of a wide variety of ethnic minority experiences. They offer provocative analyses that challenge stereotypes about minority groups in scholarship and official development policy. While powerful forces such as warring armies, the socialist state, or the market economy often are said to have undermined the livelihoods and identities of once-autonomous peoples, these studies reveal how peoples at the periphery of the modern nation state nonetheless have been active in the transformation and redefinition of their worlds. The chapters situate contemporary minority transnational networks in the context of older translocal affiliations, identities, and livelihood strategies. In contrast with the attention devoted in previous studies to the state ethnic classification project, the studies shed light on popular identifications in circulation, and transition, among ethnic minorities themselves.
“Contrastive topic in Eastern Cham”
Kenneth Baclawski Jr.
Eastern Cham is an Austronesian language spoken in south-central Vietnam by about 100,000 people. It is considered endangered due to a lack of intergenerational transmission, high levels of bilingualism with Vietnamese, and limited language education (cf. Brunelle 2008; Moseley 2010). Following the period from the 1650’s to the 1800’s, Eastern Cham has been in a unidirectional language contact situation with Vietnamese, the dominant socioeconomic language of the area (cf. Po 1991). The prevalence of language contact has led to numerous proposed contact effects from Vietnamese (cf. Thurgood 1999; Brunelle & Phú, forthcoming). Data for this paper come from the author’s field elicitation with 15 native speakers of university age from the Cham villages of Ninh Thuận province, Vietnam. These speakers exhibit numerous such contact effects, and there is inter- and intra-speaker variation present in numerous lexical items (cf. Baclawski Jr., forthcoming).
In the following sections, the form hu is analyzed as a contrastive topic marker. In previous literature, hu is noted to be polyfunctional. Thurgood & Li (2003) and Brunelle & Phú (forthcoming) explore its grammaticalization paths. In contemporary Eastern Cham, hu is a verb meaning ‘have’, a clause-final root modal, and an existential copula (3a). In addition to these uses, hu often accompanies negation in a variety of positions, such as 2 predicate-initial (3b), and it can also mark contrastive topic in these same positions (3c).2 The forms of hu in (3a–c) are different from the ‘have’ and modal uses, as they are not in verbal or clause-final positions, and the relevant meanings are absent. In Section 3, existential clefts, negation, and contrastive topic are explored further.
The Barefoot Anthropologist: The Highlands of Champa and Vietnam in the Words of Jacques Dournes
French anthropologist Jacques Dournes lived in Vietnam for 25 years, from 1946 to 1970, studying the culture of the Jarai and other highland ethnic groups. He became a renowned ethnographer and the Jarai people became his lifelong passion.
In part 1 of this study, Andrew Hardy explores Dournes’s challenging monograph Potao, une théorie de pouvoir chez les Indochinois jorai and his views on the role of the highlanders in ancient Champa. In part 2, Dournes speaks animatedly with the author about the Jarai, his feelings about culture and economics, his understanding of Vietnam’s history, and his personal experience of living in the Central Highlands. The French transcript of the interview is presented in the appendix.
ANDREW HARDY works at the Ecole Francaise d’Extreme-Orient (EFEO), specializing in the history of Vietnam. He is the author of Red Hills: Migrants and the State in the Highlands of Vietnam.
Dr. Bradley Murg is an assistant professor of political science and director of global development studies at Seattle Pacific University and affiliate professor at the Henry M. Jackson School of International Studies at the University of Washington. Dr. Murg’s research, supported by grants from the Social Science Research Council and the International Research and Exchanges Board, focuses on legal reform, regional inequality, the political economy of foreign aid, and economic development in the Mekong region, China (particularly Xinjiang, Qinghai and Ningxia), and the former Soviet Union. His current work explores the history of foreign aid in Cambodia, paying particular attention to the development of the Cham community as well as Chinese aid and investment today. Dr. Murg graduated Phi Beta Kappa from Emory University with a BA/MA in philosophy, received his MSc. in economic history from the London School of Economics, and his M.A. and PhD in political science from the University of Washington. Dr. Murg has worked in Asia for nearly 20 years, initially having moved to the region as a Henry Luce Scholar at the Asian Development Bank in 2000. He speaks English, French, German, Russian, Mandarin Chinese, Tagalog, and is currently struggling with Khmer.
Dr. Amandine Lepoutre was born on November 26th, 1979 and currently lives in Lille, France.
From 1998 to 2000 Dr. Lepoutre attended the University of Charles de Gaulle, Lille 3, Villeneuve d’Ascq, where she received a DEUG in History, with foci in law and economy. Then, in June 2001 she also received a license in History, with a focus in archaeology, before following this study up with an MA in Medieval History in June 2002, also from University of Charles de Gaulle, Lille 3, Villeneuve d’Ascq. In September 2003 she earned a DESS in Southeast Asian Studies with foci in cooperation, development, and management, also from University of Charles de Gaulle, Lille 3, Villeneuve d’Ascq. The following year she entered the doctoral program in History and Philology at EPHE, in Paris, where she made rapid progress, and managed to defend her dissertation as of March 2010. She is fluent in English, has a reading knowledge of Eastern Cham Akhar Thrah script, and has a working knowledge of Sanskrit as well as Vietnamese. She is co-author with three others on the most recent multi-lingual epigraphic study of Cham inscriptions from the Museum of Cham Culture at Da Nang.
Dr. Siti Nor Awang
School of Distance Education
Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
- Ph.D. (Social Anthropology) 2010, University of Hull UK
- Master of Art (Social Anthropology) 1996, University of Malaya
- B.A. (Hons.) Anthropology & Sociology 1994, University of Malaya
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David Griffiths Sox earned a Master of Arts in geography at University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) in 1972, with a lengthy thesis titled “Resource Use System of Ancient Champa”. The thesis reconstructed the economy of Champa, with chapters on prehistory and history, trade systems, agriculture and maritime technology, and hypothesized the central role of the temple in the Champa’s economy.
He later collected a large amount of information from U.S. and French libraries about Cham culture and the cultural landscape of Champa for a geography Ph.D. dissertation that was never completed. Since 1973, and especially after the advent of the internet, Sox has accumulted over 25 linear feet of Champa and related Vietnamese and Southeast Asian files.
Prior to graduate school, David took French as an undergraduate and intensive Vietnamese at the Army Language School in Monterey, after which he served in Vietnam for 30 months between 1965 and 1967. At UHM, he also was exposed to one semester of intensive Mandarin Chinese. Unfortunately, he does not understand Cham. Continue reading
Gérard Moussay est un missionnaire catholique français, né le 16 août 1932 à Brecé (Mayenne) et décédé le 1er février 2012 à Paris. Il est également spécialiste des langues Cam et Minangkabau.
Fils de cultivateurs, aîné de quatre enfants, il fait ses études aux Petit et Grand Séminaires de Laval. Il est ensuite entré aux Missions Etrangères de Paris le 20 septembre 1954 et ordonné prêtre à Laval le 29 juin 1957. Quelques mois plus tard, il part au Viet Nampour la mission de Nha Trang. Il commence l’étude du vietnamien à Banam (Cambodge) 1. Continue reading