STEPHEN G. HAW
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society
Series 3, page 1 of 31
Since their first publication in 1922, two Islamic inscriptions formed an essential basis of the early history of Islam in Champa. Recently, however, they have been shown to have originated, not from Southeast Asia, but from Tunisia. It is clear that either there was an error regarding their provenance, or it was deliberately falsified. The implications of this are discussed, and the remaining evidence of early Islamic presence in Champa is reassessed. It is suggested that there is now no good evidence of any Islamic presence there until after the sixteenth century. In relation to this issue, the maritime links between China and the Islamic world are examined, as also are other examples of possible falsification of history.
The Cham people once inhabited and ruled over a large stretch of what is now the central Vietnamese coast. The Indianized civilization of this Austronesian-speaking group flourished between roughly the third and fifteenth centuries, and they competed with the Vietnamese and Khmers for influence in mainland Southeast Asia, but the Cham territories eventually became part of modern Vietnam. Written by specialists in history, archaeology, anthropology, art history, and linguistics, the essays in The Cham of Vietnam contribute to a revisionist overview of Cham history by re-assessing the ways the Cham have been studied by different generations of scholars of what “Champa” has represented over the centuries of its history. Several chapters focus on archaeological work in central Vietnam and position recent discoveries within the broader framework of Cham history, but there are also discussions of Cham economy, society and culture. Continue reading
William B. Noseworthy
[ Abstract ]
This article is about the emergence of Islamic modernism among Cham Muslim communities in Cambodia and Cochinchina during the early 20th century. Based on a combined critical reading of existing scholarship, historicized first-hand anthropological accounts, as well as archival sources from the National Archives of Cambodia and the Vietnam National Archives II, it argues accounts of modernists in these sources were either (1) cast through a French colonial reading of a Buddhist state lens and (2) cast through a Malay lens, based upon the Kaum Muda/Kaum Tua divide. First, it proceeds with a historical explanation of the emergence of Islam and the discourse used to describe Muslim communities in Vietnamese, French, and Cham language sources. Then, it turns the narrative toward an examination of the emergence of the “Kaum Muda” or “New Group” of reformist-minded modernist Muslims in early 20th century Cambodia. Delineating the networks of these intellectuals as they stretched across the border through Cochinchina, also highlights a pre-existing transnational element to the community, one that well predates current discussions of twenty-first-century transnationalism. Through a combination of the study of multiple language sources and historical methods, the article highlights the importance of polylingualism in the study of the history of Muslims in Southeast Asia.
Angie Ngoc Tran
Focusing on the understudied Cham (Sunni) Muslims who live in the Mekong Delta region of southern Vietnam, decades after Vietnam joined the market system, I found that they have sustained their century-old mobile ways of life— including retailing, fishing, and sewing—in close connection with the global Islamic community to make a living and to continue their religious studies. But a mixed picture emerges in their response to Vietnam’s labor export policy since 2002: practicing geographical agency with short-term successes but facing more risks as both men and women engage in extra local journeys, crossing borders into Cambodia, Thailand, and Malaysia. Continue reading
ĐỔNG THÀNH DANH
Bài viết này muốn gây sự chú ý đến một thời kỳ lịch sử ít được biết đến của vương quốc Champa, từ sau thế kỷ thứ XVI, tức là sau sự sụp đổ của Vijaya. Mà trọng tâm của của nó là tìm hiểu và phân tích về những chuyển biến quan trọng của Champa trong giai đoạn này dẫn đến một thời kỳ được gọi là bản địa hóa trong tiến trình lịch sử sử của vương quốc ấy. Trong đó, tác giả giành sự quan tâm vào các yếu tố bản đại hóa trên nhiều khía cạnh như tín ngưỡng – tôn giáo, chính trị – xã hội, văn hóa – văn minh. Hầu từ đó có thể phần nào làm sáng tỏ một giai đoạn lịch sử của Champa trong thời kỳ hậu vương quốc.
Từ khóa: Champa, lịch sử, thời kỳ hậu kỳ, yếu tố bản địa, bản địa hóa. Continue reading
Erlangga Ibrahim & Syahrizal Budi Putranto
Champa merupakan salah satu kerajaan basar dan disegani di-Asia Tenggara pada zamannya. Berlokasi dl daratan yang saat lni menjadi wilayah tengah dan selatah dari negara Vietnam, ketenaran Champa tak kalah denggn kerajaah masa lalu di Nusantara seperti Sriwijaya dan Majapahit.
William B. Noseworthy
The Cambodian Genocide: most scholars have heard of it. It is a critical case in ongoing studies of Genocide Studies, International Law as well as Memory and Social Trauma that many teachers will have to address. From forensic anthropologists to criminal investigators, journalists to historians—and even experts in literature—the case of a series of mass killings that emerged out of Cambodia between 1975 and 1979 under the Democratic Kampuchea (DK) regime, most frequently referred to as the “Khmer Rouge”(Kh.: Khmer Kraham), will be an important study for college students and scholars for generations to come. The genocidal policies enacted against the Cham Muslim minority during this period are increasingly well known. In this context, the decade of work by Kok-Thay Eng as Director of Research at the Documentation Center of Cambodia (DC-CAM) is enough to produce several dissertations. In fact, one of the individuals who contributed much of the work to Kok-Thay Eng’s dissertationFrom the Khmer Rouge to Hambali: Cham Identities in a Global Age, Farina So, is now working on her own dissertation based in Lowell, MA. Several other individual researchers, working with DC-CAM critically contributed to this work. The sheer number of interviews conducted by the DC-CAM research center, as well as the number that are cited in this dissertation alone, is impressive. Finally, the lucid presentation of the dissertation’s argument is testament to the author’s success in tackling, by his own admission, his own greatest challenge: writing in a second language. Continue reading
PGS.TS Thành Phần
Để hiểu rõ về tín ngưỡng tôn giáo truyền thống của người Chăm thấu đáo hơn, chúng tôi tập trung quan tâm đến mối quan hệ giữa các cộng đồng người Chăm qua việc sử dụng thuật ngữ bản địa, nhận diện lại cơ cấu tổ chức xã hội truyền thống và mối quan hệ giữa các tầng lớp xã hội trong cộng đồng người Chăm ngày nay
Not long ago this journal published a moving account of the forgotten Muslims of
Kampuchea and Vietnam by Seddik Taouti1. In Kampuchea Taouti estimates that approximately seventy percent of the Muslim population was exterminated by the Khmer Rouge led by the Pol Pot regime. The author cites the Ministry of Planning in Kampuchea as recording a Muslim population of 190,000 surviving Muslims from a
total population of 800,000. The author visited areas such as Kompong Cham in which
66,793 Muslims reside. Although during the Pol Pot regime Taouti states that the
majority of Muslims were exterminated because they were of the Islamic faith, he
suggests that presently (in 1982) the Muslims appeared to live in harmony with their
Buddhist neighbours in Kampuchea. In a thorough essay on the genocidal policies carried out against Cham Muslims Ben Kiernan relies upon both Kampuchean and Vietnamese documents and eyewitness accounts to estimate that approximately 90,000 Cham Muslims were executed.2 Kiernan concludes that Pol Pot’s regime tried not only to destroy the Islamic tradition, Continue reading