Montagnards and the Cham Kings: Labor and Land Administration as seen in the Documentary and Oral Archives

Thank you Mr. Che Sa Bingu for providing this article. 

SHINE Toshihiko
Fellow, Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, Tokyo, Japan

Untitled1. Introduction
There are more than one million people belonging to seven ethnic groups with
matrilineal kinship system (Mon-Khmer group: M’Nong and Koho; Western Indonesia group: Giarai, Ede, Churu, Raglai and Cham) in Vietnam’s Central Coastal Regions and the Central Highlands. Among these groups, Chams had established a state system from early in the history. During the time of Thuan Thanh Princely State 順城鎭(1695-1832), for instance, Thuan Than Tran Vuong 順城鎭王(Cham King) ruled over the Chams under the control of Nguyen Lords (1555-1777) and Nguyen Dynasty (1802-1945). The influence of Cham Kingdom also spread beyond the territory directly occupied by the ethnic Chams. Oral records found in the southern part of Central Highlands all mention Cham king’s authority (Dam Bo 1950; Boulbet 1967; Lam Tuyen Tinh 1985; Nguyen Thuan Triet 1990; Lam Tuyen Tinh 2000). These include the folktales about their resistance against Cham kings, marriage with Cham Princesses, or stories about how they aided Cham kingdom in their conflicts with their enemies. Furthermore, one of the crucial pieces of evidence that link the Montagnards and the Cham Kings is the presence of the treasures of Cham kings in more than a dozen storages located in the villages of Montagnards like Koho, Raglai and Churu in Lam Dong Province, Ninh Thuan Privince, and Binh Thuan Province (Parmentier & Durand 1905; Nghiem Tham 1960; Nguyen Xuan Nghia 1989). However, to this day, the evidence regarding Cham king’s labour and land administration of the Montagnards has been strikingly rare. This report presents several data that allow us to analyze and reconstruct the Cham system of administering the labor and land tenure among the Montagnards.

Access the full paper here: SHINE.Montagnards and Cham kings

The Birth of Champa

Anne-Val´erie Schweyer

AAEAAQAAAAAAAAJ3AAAAJGZkODE2NmM1LTU4OGItNDc2ZC1hNzc4LWM2Y2M0MzM2NTc0ZgThis paper will attempt to illuminate what was meant by Linyi and Champa. If it can be shown that there were polities on the lower middle coast of today’s Vietnam before the words ‘Cham’ or ‘Champa’ appear in inscriptions and we should be able to clarify the precise birthdate of ‘Champa’. We must rely on Chinese texts and archaeological and epigraphic traces. Researching these sources tends to define the Cham area as a mosaic of different territories rather than a unified territory strung along the coast. Thus Linyi and Champapura were distinct territories, among others, which had existed since Austronesians first settled the coastal valleys of Vietnam.

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The Cham Community in Cambodia from the Fifteenth to the Nineteenth Century

Historical development of its resettlement and its role in Cambodian political life

Mak Phoen 

Proceedings of the Seminar on Champa


The military disaster which led to the destruction of Vijaya, the capital of the Cham kingdom, in 1471 by L‘ Thænh Ton’s (1460–1497) Vietnamese troops was echoed in the Khmer Royal Chronicles which noted that the victorious Vietnamese king divided Champa into large and small provinces, some of which were incorporated into the Vietnamese territory while some others were placed under Cham Kings’ authority who exerted their power under the vigilant control of Vietnamese officials sent by the Court of [‰ng-[‰ (Hø-NÈi). The Khmer Annals also noted that at that time many Cham common people as well as princes of the royal family were forced to leave their ancestral land and took refuge in the Khmer kingdom. The term Cham is used here according to the data gathered from the Khmer Royal Chronicles and may denote not only the Cham ethnic groups who lived in the lowlands but also a number of other ethnic groups in Champa who lived in the highlands of the TrıÏng-SÍn range and who played a full sociopolitical role in this multiethnic kingdom. Many other inhabitants of Champa withdrew into the mountainous regions of the country to live with the montagnards (Stiengs, Rhades etc.). Continue reading