University of Hawai’I at Manoa
This dissertation investigates the prosodic and intonational characteristics of Western Cham (three letter code for International Organization for Standardization’s ISO 639-3 code: [iso=cja]), an Austronesian language in the Chamic sub-group. I examine acoustic variables of prominence at word and postlexical levels: syllable duration, pitch excursion, and mean intensity. WC syllable duration is highly correlated with word level prominence. Western Cham disyllabic words display a strong iambicity, with final syllables having twice the duration of initial syllables. This iambicity is also present in phrases comprised of two monosyllabic words. Phrase position has an effect on syllable duration and pitch excursion. Syllables in phrase-final position showed a lengthening effect and display greater pitch movement in phrase-final position. I also present a tonal grammar of Western Cham using the Autosegmental-Metrical framework and the Tones and Break Indices (ToBI) labeling convention. Two prosodic units above the word level were defined: the Accentual Phrase (AP) and Intonational Phrase (IP). Three kinds of tones are defined: edge tones, phrase tone, and pitch accent. With this inventory of tones, a mapping of sentence types to tonal contours is presented.
Author: Graham Thurgood. 1999.
Oceanic Linguistics Special Publication No. 28. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press. xvii + 407 pp
Reviewed by R. A. Blust at : Oceanic Linguistics
Volume 39, Number 2, December 2000
As early as 192 a.d., Chinese dynastic records refer to “Lin-yi,” a powerful Indianized state that ³ourished in coastal mainland southeast Asia south of the Vietnamese in the Red River delta and north of Funan in the Mekong delta. In this groundbreaking work, Thurgood (T) documents the remarkable linguistic history of Lin-yi, better known to Western historians as Champa. A bird’s-eye view of major events in the linguistic history of Champa can be summarized roughly as follows:
(1) Somewhat over 2,000 years ago, an Austronesian-speaking population that was not yet completely differentiated from those speaking Malayic languages of western Indonesia arrived on the coast of Vietnam. Continue reading
Marc Brunelle, Département de Linguistique,
In this paper, I reconsider two historical scenarios that have become prevalent in the literature on Chamic languages. The first one is that Acehnese is an offshoot of Chamic that arrived in Sumatra directly from Champa (Blust 1992; Cowan 1991; Thurgood 1999, 2007). The second one is that Tsat, a Chamic language spoken by the Utsat people on the southern tip of Hainan, is a direct descendant of a Northern Chamic dialect closely related to Northern Raglai (Thurgood 1999, 2007). My goal here is not to reject earlier proposals in bulk, but rather to sort out the evidence and to establish ranges of historical scenarios compatible with the linguistic data. Continue reading