The East Sea World and the Connection of Champa and Indian Culture

Luong Ninh, Ph.D.


   11811510_10153505929963399_562035184949002325_nAfter  the Discovery of  Sa Huynh Culture  which provided  us with  knowledge of the   relation between  this Culture and   the one  existing  in the East Sea, even far across ocean-the Malayo-Polynesians, The  Community  of that was of master of Sa Huynh Culture  could be  Population   constituting  the State of Champa, also of Malayo-Polynesian speakers, called the Chams,  considered  themselves the owner-master of State Champa. So were the Chams coming into the desert? Were they the unique population on the shore, the only people of Champa? No. What was other Population? The first question to be addressed.

In the ancient area of Champa, one can find   many vestiges, such as kalan (Temple), of brick, Stelae written in Sanskrit and ancient Cham, a lot of Deity statues of stone, sculptural pictures all originated from prototype of Indian Art School.  Was India the single partner of Champa? No, there was also China. There were a lot of Chinese productions and a quantity of money in Archaeological Museum. The 2nd question to be proposed. So, is it occurred a choice of “Partner”?  What was the causality? The feeling of love or hate?  Willingly or pressure? This is the 3rd Issue to be proposed and to deliberate.

 This paper presents respectively the Mode and the Processes of Indian Cultural Influences to the local People on the shore of the present Vietnam, constituting the State of Champa and Funan in 3 stages-in the North Champa, in the South, and the Connection of Indian Culture coming from the Andaman Sea to the East Sea in Pacific, with the local People -Vnam, Bnam-nowadays: Mnong Gar, Penongs in the South of West Highland of Vietnam. The Mode and the Processes of 3 stages of Indian Cultural Influences in   the North Champa, South Champa and Funan, trying to explain the issues proposed.

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Champa revised – Champa nhìn lại (Viet-Anh)

Michael Vickery

01Bài viết này có bản tiếng Việt và tiếng Anh.

As the title of this paper implies, I consider that the history of Champa, which, as a whole, has hardly been given critical study since Georges Maspéro’s 1928 book, is in need of revision.1 The important points which require revision are the following: (a) The origins of the Austronesian-speaking Cham who now live in Vietnam and Cambodia. (b) The Linyi problem. Was Linyi identical with Champa, from the beginning of records concerning it, or from a later date, or if not, what was it?2 (c) Relations with Vietnam, in particular the notion that Champa, including Linyi, was always a victim of expansionism by its northern neighbor. (d) The narrative of the history of Champa as conceived by Maspéro. Although his book received critical attention soon after its publication and more thoroughly later on from Rolf Stein, his main conclusions passed literally into the famous synthesis by Georges Coedès, and have continued to exert strong influence on further work, including total acceptance by some linguists within the last decade.3

Read the full paper here: vickery2005champa

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