This paper is an attempt to detail the dualism observed in the cosmology of both the Cham monuments and contemporary Cham society. It first outlines the dualistic cults as represented in two royal sanctuaries, My Son in the north and Po Nagar Nha Trang in the south of the Champa kingdom. The My Son sanctuary was located in a deep valley surrounded by high mountain ranges and it was here that the god Bhadresvara/father/ mountain/areca were worshipped. On the other hand, the Po Nagar Nha Trang Sanctuary was located on a riverside hill near an estuary where the goddess Bhagavati/ Po Yang Inu Nagar/mother/sea/coconut were worshipped. Similar to the dualism observed in these two key sanctuaries of Champa, we can also observe cosmological dualism within contemporary Cham communities along the south central coast of Vietnam. The Cham people of this region are divided into two groups based on their religions. One group, called the Cham or Ba-la-mon (Brahmanists) are adherents of an indigenized form of Hinduism; the other group called Bani, are adherents of an indigenized form of Islam. The paper details the cosmological dualism within these communities. The study concludes by suggesting that cosmological dualism is a key concept for understanding Champa, elucidating both the structure of the kingdom in the past as well as the structure of contemporary Cham society.
Trần Kỳ Phương & Rie Nakamura
Thánh đô Mỹ Sơn: Tín ngưỡng hoàng gia của tiểu quốc miền Bắc Chiêm Thành (Campà) *
Văn bia đầu tiên của Mỹ Sơn đã được phát hiện thuộc triều vua Bhadravarman, người mà sử liệu Việt Nam và Trung Hoa gọi là Phạm Hồ Đạt hay Fan Hu-ta, trị vì khoảng năm AD 380- 413. Minh văn này đề cập đến việc nhà vua dựng một ngôi đền để phụng hiến Thần Bhadresvara (Siva); và xác lập vùng đất được chọn để xây dựng thánh địa của hoàng gia, là, dựa vào ngọn núi thiêng ở phía nam thung lũng tên là Mahaparvata/ Đại Sơn Thần, mà, ngày nay nhân dân trong vùng gọi là núi Răng Mèo hay Hòn Quắp [C72 (ký hiệu văn bia Chàm)]( Jacques 1995: 5, 204; Trần 2002; 2004: 3-5, 33-5; Majumdar 1985: Inscription #4, 4-8). Continue reading
University of Washington, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 1999. 0800086.
This dissertation is a study of ethnicity. It examines complex ethnicity of the Cham, one of 54 state-recognized minority groups in Vietnam. It compares the formation of ethnic identities between two different Cham groups living in two different regions of Vietnam, and argues that ethnicity is the interactional identity of a person. Special attention is given to the religious systems of the both groups, and some ethnographic data of the Cham people in Vietnam is included.
This dissertation also examines the development of ethnic minority policies in Vietnam and the role of the state in the construction of the Cham ethnicity. Special attention is given to the Vietnamese political and historical characteristics as a Socialist nation, and a former colony of France. In order to examine the ways ethnicity is conceptualized in the context of the modern nation, some issues regarding nationalism, nation and state are explored. In particular, the similarity between ethnicity and nationalism is discussed.