Cham People(越南占族)

The similarity of the Cambodian Cham language and the Malay language can be found in names of places such as Kampong Cham, Kambujadesa, Kampong Chhnang, etc and Sejarah Melayu clearly mentioned a Cham community in Parameswara’s Malacca around 1400s.

Cham is related to the Malayo-Polynesian languages of Malaysia, Indonesia, Madagascar and the Philippines. In mid 1400s, when Cham was heavily defeated by the Vietnamese, some 120,000 were killed and in the 1600s the Champa king converted to Islam. In 1700s the last Champa Muslim king Pô Chien gathered his people and migrated south to Cambodia while those along the coastline migrated to the nearest peninsula state Terengganu, approximately 500 km or less by boat, and Kelantan.
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Danh sách mục từ Ina Lang Jawa Haok

ina lang

Theo Ts. Po Dharma  « Từ Vựng Mã-Chăm cổ sáng tác tại Champa » không xấp xếp theo thứ tự ABCD mà là theo mục đề.  Một số mục từ chỉ có một từ vựng. Một số khác ghi lại những từ kép và một số còn lại thường là câu đối thoại hay thí dụ có nội dung dài hơn nữa trang giấy. Trong số lượng 1380 mục từ nằm trong  « Từ Vựng Mã-Chăm cổ sáng tác tại Champa », Ts. Po Dharma chỉ phát hiện có 983 từ Mã Lai. Số lượng 983 từ chỉ là số lượng quá nhỏ nhoi so với từ vựng phổ thông của tiếng Mã Lai hôm nay. Nhưng theo Ts. Po Dharma,  nếu tiếp thu được 983 từ Mã ghi trong tác phẩm này, người ta có thể dùng nó để tiếp xúc trong việc giao lưu, buôn bán và ngoại giao vào thời điểm đó.

Xem bản toàn văn tại đây: jawa haok


Revisiting Cham Ethnic Identity in Vietnam and Cambodia: The Concept of “Ethnic Passport

Mohamed Effendy Bin Abdul Hamid


The Cham people are one of the most fascinating ethnic communities in Southeast
Asia. The thesis aims to understand Cham ethnic identity and the qualities that the Cham possess that allowed them to successfully participate in societies in Southeast Asia. It will be argued that the Cham posses the “ethnic passport,” i.e., a set of “internal documents” that have given the Cham the qualities necessary to enter other societies. Through such a framework, one is able to garner a more nuanced view of the Cham especially in regard to their ability to negotiate the “non-physical” boundaries of nation states in Southeast Asia. Continue reading

Champa in Malay Literature

Abdul Rahman al-Ahmadi

Proceedings of the Seminar on Champa



Champa no longer exists on the map of the world and the Cham kingdom and civilization are today virtually unknown in the Malay world. However, contacts were established between Champa and the Malay Peninsula as well as the Malay Archipelago. In this paper, we will gather scattered materials in Malay literature related to the language, literature, and history of Champa.

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On the Historical and Literary Relations Between Champa and the Malay World

Henri Chambert-Loir

Proceedings of the Seminar on Champa

263ee54a01-2-ban-do3Historians who pored over the history of Champa since the beginning of this century, in particular G. Maspéro and G. Coedès, have emphasized the ups and downs of this Indianized people who lived in present-day Vietnam and whose kingdom, or more exactly kingdoms, witnessed their territory and power progressively weakened under the inexorable pressure of the Vietnamese. Since its appearance in the second century of the Christian era, the history of this people is in close and constant relations with those of other powers of southern Asia, from south China to the Malay Archipelago: history of political conflicts on the one side and commercial and cultural contacts, on the other. Not only had the Chams, by the fact that they inhabited the coast of Central Vietnam, occupied a strategic position on the sea-route between south China and the Indian Ocean, but the presence of Cham merchants and even Cham communities were recognized in the main commercial crossroads of the region between the ninth and seventeenth centuries. Continue reading